The French suited tarot deck took over as the most popular tarot deck in the latter half of the eighteenth century. It quickly spread and is used worldwide today.
The standard French tarot deck has 78 cards and are categorized as follows:
There are 4 suits, named hearts, diamonds, spades, and clubs. Each suit has 14 cards ranked as so, King, Queen, Cavalier, Jack, 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1.
There are 21 cards with congruent numerical values that make up the trumps in a French suited tarot deck. These are usually illustrated with elaborate drawings depicting anything from various life milestones to animals, etc.
The fool is an unnumbered card that usually has depicted on it a jester or musician of some kind. It is used in some games and can be either a wild card or the highest trump in a game.
While there are tons of variations of the French suited tarot deck, the one described above is the most widely used today.
There a many games that use the French tarot deck, for a more in-depth look I suggest looking under Tarot Games.